1. some和any的用法:

(1)两者修饰可数单数名词,表某一个;任何一个; 修饰可数复数名词和不可数名词,表一些;有些。

(2)一般的用法:some用于肯定句any用于疑问句,否定句或条件句

I am looking for some matches.

Do you have any matches? I do not have any matches.

(3)特殊的用法:

(A) 在期望对方肯定的回答时,问句也用some

Will you lend me some money? (=Please lend me some money.)

(B) any表任何或任何一个时,也可用于肯定句

Come any day you like.

(4)some和any后没有名词时,当做代名词, 此外两者也可做副词。

Some of them are my students.〔代名词)

Is your mother any better?(副词)

 

2. many和much的用法:

(1)many修饰复数可数名词,表许多much修饰不可数名词,表量或程度

He has many friends, but few true ones.

There hasn’t been much good weather recently.

(2)many a:

many a和many同义,但语气比较强,并且要与单数名词及单数形动词连用

Many a prisoner has been set free. (=Many prisoners have been set free.)

(3)as many和so many均等于the same number of。 前有as, like时, 只用so many

These are not all the books I have. These are as many more upstairs.

They worked like so many ants.

(4)as much等于the same amount of, 表同量和同一事情

He bought two pounds of sugar and as much tea. 〔同量)

I was not in the least surprised, for I had fully expected as much. 〔同一事情)

(5)many和much之后不接名词时,作为代名词;另外much也可用副词。

Many of them were very tired.

I don’t eat much for lunch. 〔代名词)

He is much taller than I. (副词〕

 

3. (a) few和(a) little的用法:

(1) (a) few用在复数可数名词之前(a) little用在不可数名词之前

He took a few biscuits. (=several)

He took few biscuits(=not many)

He took a little butter. (=some)

He took little butter. (=not much)

(2) few可由bardly any或almost no所取代,含否定的意味

The composition is well written; it has few (=hardly any) mistakes.

Few (=Almost no) men can solve it.

(3) a few相当于some, several, 含肯定的意味

He has a few (=some or several) friends.

(4) a little和little之间的差别,就和a few和few的差别一样,只是(a) little须修饰不可数名词,表量或程度

He grows worse; there is little hope of his recovery.

He is not much better, but there is a little hope.

 

4. 其他的数量形容词:

(1) plenty of, a lot of, lots of均表许多,修饰复数可数名词或不可数名词。

The room contained plenty of (or a lot of or lots of) students.(复数名词)

The room contained plenty of (or a lot of or lots of) furniture.(不可数名词)

(2) a great (or a good) deal of, a large (or a small) quantity of, a large (or a small) amount of, 均表(量), 修饰不可数名词

The room contained a great deal of furniture. (不可数名词)

The room contained a good deal of furniture. (不可数名词)

The room contained a large quantity of furniture. (不可数名词)

The room contained a large amount of furniture. (不可数名词)

The room contained a small quantity of furniture. (不可数名词)

The room contained a small amount of furniture. (不可数名词)

(3) a number of “许多;一些”;a great (large, good) number of “许多”,修饰复数可数名词,并且要与复数动词连用

A number of books are missing from the library.

The number of books from the library is large.

(the number of +复数名词←→单数动词)

The room contained a great (or large or good) number of students.(复数可数名词)

(4) enough的用法

(A) 可接复数可数名词和不可数名词

There are enough chairs. (可数)

There is enough furniture. (不可数)

(B) 可放在年修饰名词的前后。

We don’t have enough time. =We don’t have time enough.

(5) hundreds of, dozens of, thousands of, scores of +复数可数名词

冠词或数词(one, two…) + (hundred, dozen, thousand, score) 复数可数名词

(6) the rest of “其余的”, 可接复数可数名词及不可数名词,作主词时,接可数名词则用复数动词,接不可数名词则用单数动词。

The rest of the students are absent. (复数可数名词)

The rest of the water was thrown away. 不可数名词)

注:the rest作代名词, 等于 the others, 和复数动词连用。

 

5. 不可名词量的表示语:

(1) 不可数名词可加表单位的形容片语,表示数的观念。其公式为:

数词+单位词+of+不可数名词

(2) 各类表单位的形容词片语。

(A) 物质名词:

a piece (suit) of armour;

a piece (slice) of cake;

a piece (an article) of furniture;

a piece of jewelry;

a piece (sheet) of paper;

a cake of soap;

a piece (slice) of bacon;

a piece (stick) of chalk;

a bit (blade) of grass;

a piece (strip) of land;

a bit (grain) of rice;

a bowl of soup;

(B) 抽象名词

a word of abuse;

an item (a bit) of business;

an attack of fever;

a bit (an amount) of interest;

a fit of passion;

a piece (word) of advice;

a piece of evidence;

a piece (an item) of information;

a piece (an item) of news;

(C) 自然现象:

a flash of lightening;

a bolt of thunder;

 

6. 名词种类的表示语:kind of, sort of, type of,

(1) 三者都可接可数名词及不可数名词其后的冠词a (an)常被省略

What kind of (a) pencil did you buy?

I don’t like that sort of game.

(2) kind of, sort of, type of之前可加a, the, some, any, etc.

I had a kind of suspicion that he was cheating.